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    和现在分词及短语一样,过去分词(past participles)或过去分词短语(past participial phrases)也可以充当副词,修饰谓语动词。
    ● He walked up and down, lost in thought.
    ● I sat before the desk until after mid-night, absorbed in writing.
    ● Surrounded by a host of fans, the film star left the airport excitedly.
    ● Greatly disappointed, some staff decided to leave the place.
    ● Taken by surprise, the enemy surrendered.
    ● Born and bred in a turbulent age, the older generation of people experienced all sorts of hardships.
    ● Thrown to the floor, the boy regained his footing a few minutes later.
    ● Given more time, the slow learners would have done better.
    ● Criticised by someone else, Tony would not have flared up like that.
    1.由 when, whenever, while, until 等连词引导,表示“ 时间”,如:
    ● When asked about his previous job, Bill said he had been a motor mechanic.
    ● Susan seldom speaks in class until spoken to.
    2.由 where, wherever 连词引导,表示“地点”,如:
    ● Mosquitoes should be completely exterminated where found.
    ● Retirees in good health should be invited to return to work wherever needed.
    3.由 if, unless 引导,表示“条件”,如:
    ● If kept for too long, some medicines will lose their effectiveness.
    ● We have made a point of not attacking unless attacked.
    4.由 though, although, even though 连词引导,表示“让步 ”,如:
    ● Though warned of the danger, they still went mountaineering.
    ● Even though defeated for a second time, our team did not give up hope for the ultimate victory.
    ● With the water pipe choked, there wasn‘t any more water for use.
    ● Without anything left in the kitchen, the Wangs decided to eat out.
    最后,过去分词短语,在适当情况下,可以有自己的主语而变成独立结构(the absolute construction),如:
    ● The old man listened, his head inclined to one side.

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