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    Children learn almost nothing from television, and the more they watch the less they remember. They regard television purely as entertainment, resent programs that demand on them and are surprised that anybody should take the medium seriously. Far from being over-excited by programs, they are mildly bored with the whole thing. These are the main conclusions from a new study of children and television. The author- Cardiac Cullingford confirms that the modern child is a dedicated viewer. The study suggests that there is little point in the later hours. More than a third of the children regularly watch their favorite programs after 9 p.m. all 11-year-olds have watched programs after midnight.
    Apart from the obvious waste of time involved, it seems that all this viewing has little effect. Children don't pay close attention, says Cullingford, and they can recall few details. They can remember exactly which programs they have seen but they can rarely explain the elements of a particular plot. Recall was in "reverse proportion to the amount they had watched". It is precisely because television, unlike a teacher, demands so little attention and response that children like it, argues Cullingford. Programs seeking to put over serious messages are strongly disliked. So are people who frequently talk on screen. What children like most, and remember best, are the advertisements. They see them as short programs in their own right and particularly enjoy humorous presentation. But again, they react strongly against high-pressure advertisements that attempt openly to influence them.
    On the other hand, they are not emotionally involved in the programs. If they admire the stars, it is because the actors lead glamorous lives and earn a lot of money, not because of their fictional skills with fast cars and shooting villains. They are perfectly clear about the functions of advertisements; by the age of 12, only one in 10 children believes what even favorite ads say about the product. And says Cullingford, educational television is probably least successful of all in imparting attitudes or information.
    1. The study of children and television shows that
    A) it is useless for television companies to delay adult viewing to the later hours.
    B) It is a waste of time for children to watch adult programs on TV.
    C) Children should not watch television programs late into the night.
    D) Children are supposed to learn a lot from television programs.
    2. "Recall was in reverse proportion to the amount they had watched" (in Paragraph 2) has almost the same meaning as
    A) "the more they watch the less they remember".(in Paragraph 1)
    B) "Programs seeking to put over serious messages are strongly disliked". (in Paragraph 2)
    C) "They see them as short programs in their own right".(in Paragraph 2)
    D) "educational television is probably least successful of all in imparting attitudes or information".(in Paragraph 3)
    3. Which of the following is NOT true according to the new study of children and television?
    A) Some children stay up late to watch the programs they like
    B) Children enjoy watching challenging programs.
    C) Children don't like serious messages and high-pressured ads.
    D) Though children like watching ads, most of them don't believe what ads say about the product.
    4. Cullingford concludes that
    A) children are excited when they watch TV.
    B) Watching TV has little real effect on children.
    C) Parents should spend less time watching TV.
    D) Parents should be worried about the effect of TV on children.
    5. Whom would the result of the new study upset?
    A) the advertisers.
    B) The children viewers.
    C) The movie stars.
    D) The educators.

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